Randolph township in the original survey of the Western Reserve was known as number 1 in the 8th range. Townships were numbered in tiers from the Pennsylvania border and from south to north. The southern boundary being the southern boundary of the Western Reserve. The survey of Randolph and adjoining townships was completed in 1797. Due to error in the survey Randolph Township is larger than the proposed size of townships, thus giving it the distinction of being the largest township in Portage County. Randolph Township is on the southern end of Breakneck Creek a feeder that supplies the Cuyahoga River, meeting it in Franklin Township. Breakneck Creek supplied the power that helped Randolph grow in its early years.